El primer rover de recolección de muestras de Marte de la NASA enfrentará ‘siete minutos de terror’ al aterrizar | Noticias de ciencia y medio ambiente

Washington: Después de un viaje de casi siete meses a Marte, el rover Perseverance de la NASA, su primera misión para recolectar polvo y rocas rotas marcianas, está programado para aterrizar en un terreno complicado del Planeta Rojo el 18 de febrero.

El rover caracterizará la geología del planeta y el clima pasado y allanará el camino para la exploración humana del Planeta Rojo.

El rover Perseverance, el rover más sofisticado de la NASA hasta ahora, intentará aterrizar en el cráter Jezero del planeta rojo.

Pero las mismas características que hacen que el sitio sea fascinante para los científicos también lo convierten en un lugar relativamente peligroso para aterrizar, un desafío que ha motivado pruebas rigurosas aquí en la Tierra para el sistema de visión del módulo de aterrizaje (LVS) con el que el rover contará para aterrizar de manera segura.

«Jezero tiene 28 millas de ancho, pero dentro de esa extensión hay muchos peligros potenciales que el rover podría encontrar: colinas, campos rocosos, dunas, las paredes del cráter mismo, por nombrar solo algunos», dijo Andrew Johnson, director de robótica. Ingeniero de sistemas en el Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) de la NASA en el sur de California.

«Entonces, si aterriza en uno de esos peligros, podría ser catastrófico para toda la misión», agregó.

Ingrese a la Navegación Relativa al Terreno (TRN), la tecnología de misión crítica en el corazón del sistema de visión del módulo de aterrizaje que captura fotos del terreno de Marte en tiempo real y las compara con los mapas a bordo del área de aterrizaje, dirigiendo de forma autónoma al vehículo para que se desvíe. peligros y obstáculos conocidos según sea necesario.

«Para Mars 2020, LVS (sistema de visión del módulo de aterrizaje) utilizará la información de posición para averiguar dónde está el rover en relación con los puntos seguros entre esos peligros. Y en uno de esos puntos seguros es donde el vehículo aterrizará», explicó Johnson.

El sistema de visión del módulo de aterrizaje permite que el rover determine su posición en relación con el suelo con una precisión de aproximadamente 200 pies o menos.

Ese bajo margen de error y alto grado de seguridad son por diseño y el resultado de pruebas exhaustivas tanto en el laboratorio como en el campo.

«La vida real siempre puede arrojarle curvas. Por lo tanto, monitorearemos todo durante la fase de crucero, verificaremos la alimentación de la cámara y nos aseguraremos de que los datos fluyan como se espera», explicó Swati Mohan de JPL, operaciones de guía, navegación y control. líder para Marte 2020.

«Y una vez que recibamos la señal del rover que dice, ‘He aterrizado y estoy en terreno estable’, entonces podemos celebrar».

Ella estará en Mission Control para el aterrizaje, monitoreando el estado del sistema en cada paso del camino.

Conocido por el equipo como los «Siete Minutos del Terror», la entrada, el descenso y el aterrizaje de Perseverance se transmitirán en vivo cuando el rover llegue a Marte el 18 de febrero.

Televisión en vivo

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